A definite prognosis is that international trade agreements will continue to be controversial. However, these advantages must be offset by a disadvantage: by excluding some countries, these agreements can transfer the composition of trade from low-cost countries that are not parties to the agreement to high-cost countries that are. In most modern economies, there are many possible coalitions of interested groups and the diversity of possible unilateral barriers is important. In addition, some trade barriers are created for other non-economic reasons, such as national security or the desire to protect or isolate local culture from foreign influences. It is therefore not surprising that successful trade agreements are very complicated. Some commonalities of trade agreements are (1) reciprocity, (2) a clause of the most favoured nation (MFN) and (3) the use of non-tariff barriers. The anti-globalization movement is almost by definition opposed to such agreements, but some groups that are normally allied within this movement, for example the green parties. B, aspire to fair trade or secure trade rules that moderate the real and perceived negative effects of globalization. Let us assume, for example, that Japan sells bicycles for $50, that Mexico sells them for $60, and that they both expect a $20 dollar in the United States. If tariffs on Mexican products are removed, U.S.

consumers will transfer their purchases of Japanese bicycles to Mexican bicycles. The result is that Americans will buy from a more expensive source, and the U.S. government does not receive customs revenue. Consumers save $10 per bike, but the government loses $20. Economists have shown that when a country enters such a “trade” customs union, the cost of trade diversion can outweigh the benefits of enhanced trade with other members of the customs union. The result is that the customs union could degrade the country. Trade agreements govern international trade between two or more nations. An agreement may include all imports and exports, certain product categories or a single category.